Home | GridMPI | GridTCP | Publications | Download

Curret Release: GridMPI-2.1.3

FAQ, Tips, and Trouble Shooting


Frequently Asked Questions


Do all hosts need global IP addresses?
Yes. Each host in the cluster should have an IP global address and be IP reachable.

RATIONALE: This is because the GridMPI implementors judged that relaying/forwarding of messages has impact on performance with the current technology. Also, it is too restricted a relaying/forwarding topology to provide a variety of collective algorithms for experiments.

How do I select one from multiple network interfaces?
GridMPI uses the default nework interface for global communication by default. An interface can be selected by a network address using the environment variable IMPI_NETWORK, in case a host has multiple network interfaces. It is specified by the format of a network address like "".

Inside a cluster, having multiple intefaces is not a problem because the cluster MPI (YAMPII) uses ones specified in a configuration file, where an inteface is selected by a given hostname.

Can I change CC in compiling GridMPI?
To compile GridMPI with a non-default C/C++ compiler, specify the environment variables (CC and others) and invoke "configure". Specify the Fortran and C++ compilers, too, because the compiler driver uses ones found at configuration time. Use CFLAGS to pass options to CC. For example, the following line suffices for using GCC.
	CC=gcc CXX=g++ F77=g77 F90=g77 ./configure (for sh/bash)
	env CC=gcc CXX=g++ F77=g77 F90=g77 ./configure (for csh/tcsh)
Can I stop dumping cores at abortion?
The behavior at abortion is controlable by the environemnt variable _YAMPI_DUMPCORE. Setting _YAMPI_DUMPCORE=0 calls exit (3c) at aborting situation, and setting _YAMPI_DUMPCORE=1 calls abort (3c). GridMPI dumps cores by default, because abortion is an irregular condition. Also, setting _YAMPI_ABORT_ON_CLOSE=0/1/2 may help to suppress dumping cores. See the full-list for the environment variables.
Can I change naming of core files in IBM AIX?
The naming of core files (such as appending PID and date) can be changed by setting environment variable "CORE_NAMING" in AIX 5.2, or using "chcore" command in AIX5.3.

To make full core dump (not only stack, but include data) in AIX, set "_YAMPI_AIX_FULLCORE" environment varaible.

Can I get the configuration of wide-area networks?
No. But you can retrieve the number of clusters and the number of procs in each cluster. IMPI defines two attributes of cluster configuration in MPI_COMM_WORLD (IMPI_CLIENT_SIZE and IMPI_CLIENT_COLOR). They indicate which cluster the proc (myrank) belongs. Counting the number of procs in clusters is simple (just do allreduce). See faq.clustercolor.c.txt or faq.clustercolorf.f.txt.

Trouble Shooting

SSH Says "Permission denied".
CASE: ssh seems to fail to start processes.
$ gridmpirun -np 4 ./pi
Permission denied (publickey,keyboard-interactive).
Permission denied (publickey,keyboard-interactive).
Permission denied (publickey,keyboard-interactive).
Permission denied (publickey,keyboard-interactive).

FIX: If you are using ssh-agent to avoid typing a passphase, then you need to allow forwarding of a secret for ssh. Add the following lines in "~/.ssh/config" or "/etc/ssh/ssh_config":

Host *
   ForwardAgent yes
To verify the setting, issue the following command:
ssh localhost ssh localhost date

RATIONALE: This happens because mpirun forks processes as a tree via rsh/ssh, and thus a secret needs to be forwarded. The name of the forker program is mpifork. Directly calling mpifork -v -np n hostname may print helpful messages.

mpirun on Fujitsu Solaris8/SPARC64V stops with a message "/opt/FJSVmpi2/bin/mpiexec[15]: aplpg: not found".
CASE: GridMPI on Fujitsu Solaris8/SPARC64V uses Fujitsu MPI as an underlying transport (known as Vendor MPI). mpirun invokes mpiexec of Fujitsu MPI, and mpiexec subsequently invokes aplpg and aprun commands, both of which should be found in the PATH.

FIX: Add /opt/FSUNaprun/bin to the PATH.


Pitfalls in Heterogeneous Environemnt

Machines have different precision in floating point.
Communicating floating point data may cause mismatch in precision, because some processors divert from the IEEE floating format. Intel IA32 (32bit) has extra precision due to its 80bit register format. IBM Power has extra precision in the multiply-add (fma) operation. Fujitsu SPARC64V also has extra precision in the multiply-add operation. Thus, errors occur in precision in a heterogeneous environment.

The IEEE comforming behavior is the compiler option. Use the following:

  • Intel IA32 (with GCC): -msse2 -mfpmath=sse
  • IBM Power (with XLC): -qfloat=nomaf -qstrict
  • Fujitsu SPARC64V (with Fujitsu compilers): -Kfast_GP=0

Other processors: Ultra-SPARC follows the IEEE. x86_64 uses the SSE registers by default and follows the IEEE. IA64 has the multiply-add operation.

IBM XLC aggressively optimizes and -qfloat=nomaf alone does not work except at -O (-O2). -qstrict is also needed for -O3 or above (for XLC Version 6).

CG from the NPB (NAS Parallel Benchmarks) fails without these options (verification fails).

Long integer types are packed in 64bits.
GridMPI packs long data in 64bits in the external32 format, whereas the MPI-2 standard specifies it should be packed in 32bits. The default non-standard behavior is chosen because sending/receiving using long data (MPI_LONG and MPI_UNSIGNED_LONG) may loose bits on 64bit machines. The standard behavior is selected by setting the environment variable _YAMPI_COMMON_PACK_SIZE.

Running NPB (NAS Parallel Benchmarks)

CG Benchmark (NPB2.3/NPB2.4/NPB3.2)

CG does not converge in a heterogeneous environemnt, with any combinations of Intel IA32, IBM Power, Sun SPARC. It is due to the floating precision of the processors which have more precision than specified by the IEEE float. Also, some aggressive optimizations need be disabled. See Pitfalls in Heterogeneous Environment.

LU Benchmark (NPB2.3/NPB2.4/NPB3.2)

LU badly uses datatypes. It is a simple mistake. Integers are exchagend as double floats. Fix is the following: faq.lu.diff.txt

FT Benchmark (NPB3.2)

Compiling with GNU g77 fails due to duplicate declaration generated by "sys/setparams.c". It is a simple mistake. Fix is the following: faq.ft.diff.txt

MG Benchmark (NPB2.3/NPB2.4/NPB3.2)

MG uses ambiguous message tags for NPROCS≥16. Tags are assigned for a pair of dimension and direction, but they do not uniquely determine the processes when the mesh structure collapses at the lowest-level. Fix is the following: faq.mg.diff.bar.txt or faq.mg.diff.tag.txt

Odds on Specific Platforms

Compiler Options to IBM AIX and Hitachi SR11000

Why -qstaticinline is passed to the IBM XL compilers in mpicc?
It suppresses warning "WARNING: Duplicate symbol" while linking C++ programs. GridMPI defines inline methods in the C++ binding, which generate many warnings at linking. The XL C++ compiler emits an associated external definition for each inline method (it is an ISO specified behavior). See IBM support document.
Why -parallel=0 is passed to the Hitachi f90 compiler in mpicc?
It disables auto-parallelization which is enabled by default (default can be set by site). Aggressive setting makes many programs fail.

Compiler Options to Fujitsu Solaris/SPARC64

Why -Knouse_rodata or -Ar is passed to the Fujitsu compilers in mpicc?
-Knouse_rodata (in C) or -Ar (in Fortran) disables to place constants in read-only area. They are necessary to use Fujitsu MPI and should always be specified.
Why -f2004,1321 is passed to the Fujitsu Fortran in mpicc?
It is just to surpress many warnings in Fortran.

Compiler Options to NEC SX

What options can I use, when a vectorized program aborts on the limit of the number of loops with the message like the following:
**** 96 Loop count is greater than that assumed by the compiler:
loop-count=274625 eln=2342 PROG=input ELN=2366(40004064c) TASKID=1
Called from main_ ELN=275(40000654c)
The options -Wf,-pvctl,loopcnt=2147483647 or -Wf,-pvctl,vwork=stack to f90/sxf90 may work (note that 2147483647=0x7fffffff). Here, -Wf is a prefix to pass complex options to the compiler.

($Date: 2006-08-22 03:12:11 $)